Foundations of Oriental Medicine | Acupuncture CEU Course

TCM Medical Classics: Huang Di Nei Jing

A one hour CEU Video course. This class presents a survey of the earliest and most authoritative texts in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Principles of the Huang Di Nei Jing, also known as Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, are illustrated with regard to the foundation of Chinese Medicine. The continuing development and growth of TCM is further explored in the Nan Jing (Classic of Difficulties) and other supporting texts.
By studying these classics, the practitioner can gain deeper insights into some of the fundamental theories that are clinically relevant in understanding pathophysiology and diagnosis of different disease conditions.

With: Dr. Daoshing Ni, co-founder of Yo San University
1 ½ PDA/Units  Free to audit this course  
$15      Payment includes CEU/PDA certificate of completion, online quiz and download .pdf course file.

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Approved for CEU/PDA by:
NCCAOM Details: Core Competencies: AOM/Biomedicine: 1 ½ PDA
California Details: California Category 1: 1 ½ CEU

Course Sections and Notes (Click any title to expand)

  • Book of Han, which is a book of history documenting activities of West Han Dynasty from 206 BC to 23 AD.
  • It stated that there was 7 medical classics in existence at that time.
  • 7 Medical Classics:

    黄帝内经> Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic

    黄帝外经> Yellow Emperor’s External Classic

    扁鹊内经> Bian Que’s Internal Classic

    扁鹊外经> Bian Que’s External Classic

    白氏内经> Dr Bai’s Internal Classic

    白氏外经> Dr Bai’s External Classic

    白氏旁篇> Dr Bai’s Supplement

Various Translated Name to English:

  • –Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic–The Inner Canon of Huangdi–Yellow Emperor’s Inner Canon–Huang Di’s Classic of Internal Medicine–Yellow Emperor’s Canon of Traditional Chinese Medicine
    • Huang Di – Yellow Emperor
    • Nei – Inner or Internal
    • Jing – classic or scripture
    • Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic
  • Warring State Period (475 BC -221 BC)
  • Author unknown
  • The Book is divided into 2 sections: Suwen – The Plain Questions and Ling Shu – The Divine Pivot.
  • 162 chapters (81 chapters in each section)
  • Earliest documentation of medical knowledge in Chinese history.
  • All doctrines originates from the fundamentals of Huang Di Nei Jing.
  • Therefore Huang Di Nei Jing is considered to be the BIBLE of TCM
  • There are many other “classics” in TCM but all originates and relates intimately to Huang Di Nei Jing
  • –Nan Jing 难经 The Classic of Difficulties is an elaboration of fundamentals of Huang Di Nei Jing
  • –Shang Han Lun 伤寒论 Injuries by Cold is an elaboration of febrile diseases described in Huang Di Nei Jing
  • –Jin Kui Yao Lue 金匮要略 Essential Strategies of the Golden Cabinet discusses treatments for internal medicine and miscellaneous diseases from Huang Di Nei Jing
  • –Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing 针灸甲乙经 or Jia Yi Jing is the study of acupuncture elaborated from Huang Di Nei Jing
  • –Mai Jing 脉经 The Pulse Classic is the study of diagnosis originated from Huang Di Nei Jing
  • Huang Di is a wise leader around 4 to 5 thousand years ago. He is considered to be the originator of the Chinese culture and well revered in history and by its people
  • Since it is at the time of shelf bone language era, it is most likely not possible to be written by him or at that time
  • 144839 words
  • To use Huang Di in its title is to
  • –Denotes its importance
  • –Prevent burning of this book
  • There are at least twenty different books that have Huang Di in its title at that time, but mostly have been lost.
  • Warring States
  • –Sufficient medical experiences–Social change, scientific advances, war, anatomy–Decline of witchcraft
  • Provides the theoretical foundation of TCM
  • Provides the framework of TCM development and thought process
  • Three Main Contents:
  • –Theories of Yin Yang, Five Elements
  • –Holistic Perspective on Health and Disease
  • –Differentiation and Treatments
  • Yang Sheng 养生
  • Zang Fu, Jingluo theories
  • Diagnostics
  • Disease discussions
  • –Etiology
  • –Pathology
  • –Disease Progression
  • –Syndrome formation
  • Therapies
  • Climatology
  • Yin Yang and Five Elements
  • 81 chapters
  • focused on fundamentals

–zang fu, diagnosis, etiopathology, treatment principles

  • secondary focus on jing luo, point studies, and needling methods
  • Qin, Yue Ren 秦越人 (Classics of Difficulties)
  • Zhang, Zhong Jing 张仲景 (Shang Han)
  • Hua, Tuo 华佗 (Zhong Zang Jing)
  • Huang, Fu Mi 皇甫谧 (Acupuncture)
  • Liu, Wan Su 刘完素 (Fire-Heat Pathology)
  • Luo, Long Ji 骆龙吉 (Nei Jing Formulations)
  • Liu, Yu De 刘浴德, Zhu, Lian 朱练 (Nei Jing Formulation)
  • Chen, Wu Jiu 陈无咎 (Nei Jing Formularies)
  • Nan Jing – 
    • Classic of Difficulties
    • Qin Yue Ren (Bian Qu)
  • Shang Han Za Bing Lun
  • Treaties on Injury by Cold and Miscellaneous Diseases
    Zhang Zhong Jing

    • Elaboration on Cold Pathology and Treatment
  • Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Huang, Fu Mi
    • focus on the treatments of acupuncture and moxibustion

Huang Di said, “The law of yin and yang is the natrual order of the universe, the foundation of all things, mother of all changes, the root of life and death. In healing, one must grasp the root of the disharmony, which is always subject to the law of yin and yang.

Chap 5 Neijing Suwen

Each of the five zang organs also has its aversions. The heart is averse to heat, the lungs to dryness, the liver to wind, the spleen to dampness, and the kidneys to dryness.

Chap 23 Neijing Suwen

Qi Bo answered, “In general, the reproductive physiology of woman is such that at seven years of age her kidney energy becomes full, her permanent teeth come in, and her hair grows long…

At fourteen years the tian kui, or fertility essence, matures, the ren/conception and chong/vital channels responsible for conception open, menstruation begins, and conception is possible…

At twenty-one years the kidney energy is strong and healthy, the wisdom teeth appear, and the body is vital and flourishing…

At twenty-eight years the bones and tendons are well developed and the hair and secondary sex characteristics are complete. This is the height of female development…

At thirty-five years the yangming channels that govern the major facial muscles begin to deplete, the muscles begin to atrophy, facial wrinkles appear, and the hair begins to thin…

At forty-two all three yang channels are exhausted, the entire face is wrinkled, and the hair begins to turn gray…

At forty-nine years the ren and chong channels are completely empty, and the tien kui has dried up, the menstruation ceases and no longer able to conceive…

In male, at eight years of age the kidney energy becomes full, the permanent teeth appear, and hair becomes long…

At sixteen years of age the kidney energy is ample, the tien kui is mature, and the jing is ripe, so procreation is possible…

At twenty-four years the kidey qi is abundant, the bones and tendons grow strong, and the wisdom teeth come in…

At the thirty-second year the body is at the peak of strength, and functions of the male are at their height…

By forty the kidney qi begins to wane, teeth become loose, and the hair starts to fall…

At forty-eight yang energy of the head begins to deplete, the face becomes sallow, the hair grays, and the teeth deteriorate…

By fifty-six years the liver energy weakens, causing the tendon to stiffen…

At sixty-four tian kui dries up and the jing is drained, resulting in in kidney exhaustion, fatigue and weakness…

When the energy of all the organs is full, the excess energy stored in the kidney is excreted for the purpose of conception. But now, the organs have aged and their energies have become depleted, the bones and tendons have become frail and stiff, and movements are hampered. The kidney reservoir becomes empty, marking the end of the power of conception.

Chap 1 Universal Truth

Huang Di said, “In nature there are eight types of wind, and within the body’s channels and collaterals there are five types of wind. What do they mean?”

Qi Bo answered, “The eight types of wind that occur in nature are abnormal and pathogenic winds, which cause diseases. These can affect the body’s channels and collaterals, producing five types of internal wind that damage their corresponding organs. These internal winds are liver wind, heart wind, lung wind, kidney wind, and spleen wind. They are caused by abnormal changes in the four seasons.

For example, spring overacts on late summer, late summer overacts on winter, winter overacts on summer, summer overacts on autumn, and autumn overacts on spring.

Chap 4 The Truth from the Golden Chamber

In ancient times the Yellow Emperor, Huang Di, was known to have been a child prodigy. As he grew he showed himself to be sincere, wise, honest, and compassionate. He became very learned and developed keen powers for observing nature. His people recognized him as a natural leader and chose him as their emperor.

During his reign, Huang Di discoursed on medicine, health, lifestyle, nutrition, and Taoist cosmology with his ministers Qi Bo, Lei Gong, and others. Their first discussion began with Huang Di inquiring, “I’ve heard that in the days of old everyone lived one hundred years without showing the usual signs of aging. In our time, however, people age prematurely, living only fifty years. Is this due to a change in the environment, or is it because people have lost the correct way of life?”

  • Symptoms of Aging
  • Increased susceptibility to infection
  • Greater risk of heat stroke or hypothermia
  • Slight decrease in height as the bones of our spines get thinner and lose some height
  • Bones break more easily
  • Joint changes, ranging from minor stiffness to severe arthritis
  • Stooped posture
  • Slowed and limited movement
  • Decrease in overall energy
  • Constipation
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Slight slowing of thought, memory, and thinking (however, delirium, dementia, and severe memory loss are NOT a normal part of aging)
  • Reduced reflexes and coordination and difficulty with balance
  • Decrease in visual acuity
  • Diminished peripheral vision
  • Some degree of hearing loss
  • Wrinkling and sagging skin
  • Whitening or graying of hair
  • Weight loss, after age 55 in men and after age 65 in women, in part due to loss of muscle tissue.

Qi Bo replied, “In the past, people practiced the Tao, the Way of Life. They understood the principle of balance, of yin and yang, as represented by the transformation of the energies of the universe. Thus, they formulated practices such as Dao-Yin, an exercise combining stretching, massaging and breathing to promote energy flow, and meditation to help maintain and harmonize themselves with the universe. They ate a balanced diet at regular times, arose and retired at regular hours, avoided overstressing their bodies and minds, and refrained from overindulgence of all kinds. They maintained well-being of body and mind; thus, it is not surprising that they lived over one hundred years.

These days, people have changed their way of life. They drink wine as though it were water, indulgence excessively in destructive activities, drain their jing – the body’s essence that is stored in the kidneys- and deplete their qi. They do not know the secret of conserving their energy and vitality. Seeking emotional excitement and momentary pleasures, people disregard the natural rhythm and order of the universe. They fail to regulate their lifestyle and diet, and sleep improperly. So it is not surprising that they look old at fifty and die soon after.

The accomplished ones of ancient times advised people to guard themselves against zei feng, disease-causing factors. On the mental level, one should remain calm and avoid excessive desires and fantasies, recognizing and maintaining the natural purity and clarity of the mind. When internal energies are able to circulate smoothly and freely, and the energy of the mind is not scattered, but is focused and concentrated, illness and disease can be avoided.

“Previously, people led a calm and honest existence, detached from undue desire and ambition; they lived with an untainted conscience and without fear. They were active, but never depleted themselves. Because they lived simply these individuals knew contentment, as reflected in their diet of basic but nourishing foods and attire that was appropriate to the season but never luxurious. Since they were happy with their position in life, they did not feel jealousy, or greed. They had compassion for others and were helpful and honest, free from destructive habits. They remained unshakable and unswayed by temptations and they were able to stay centered even when adversity arise. They treated others justly, regardless of their level of intelligence or social position.”

Huang Di asked, “When one grows old, one cannot bear children. Is this due to heredity or to the loss of one’s procreative energy?”

Qi Bo answered, “In general, the reproductive physiology of woman is such that at seven years of age her kidney energy becomes full, her permanent teeth come in, and her hair growth long…

Yellow Emperor’s 81 Classics of Difficulties

81 Difficulties

  • Published during Warring States era.
  • The author is Bian Que 扁鹊.
  • It was originally named as Huang Di Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing or Yellow Emperor’s 81 Classic of Difficulties.
  • It is written in a format of Questions and Answers.
  • It provides answers to 81 medical questions, therefore it is also referred to as the 81 Difficulties.

The Content:

  • Questions 1-22 relates to pulse diagnosis
  • Questions 23-29 relates to channel and collaterals
  • Questions 30-47 relates to Zang Fu
  • Questions 48-61 relates to discussion of diseases
  • Questions 62-68 relates to acupuncture points
  • Questions 69-81 relates to acupuncture therapy

The entire book is on describing the fundamentals of TCM


  • –Ming Men and San Jiao
  • –7 ”gates” of the digestive system (Qi Chong Men 七冲门)
  • –8 influential points (Ba Hui 八会) – Zang, Fu, Tendon, Marrow, Blood, Bone, Pulse, and Qi
  • –5 types of Shang Han – Zhong Feng (Injury by Wind), Shang Han (Injury by Cold), Shi Wen (Damp Wen Condition), Re Bing (Febrile Diseases), Wen Bing (Warmth Diseases)
  • –Discussion of stagnation in Zang organs as well as dysentery
  • It has many version and elaborations.
  • Q: All Zang organs have one, Why does Kidney has two?
  • A: Kidney has two because one of them is actually not the Kidney Zang organ. The left one is Kidney Zang organ but the right one is Ming Men. Ming Men houses spirit and essence and provides the foundation for Source Qi. In man, it is a place to store sexual essence. In woman, it is a place to hold pregnancy. That is why Kidney Zang organ is only one.
  • Q: Nei Jing made a mention of Ba Hui (Eight Influential Points), what are they?
  • A: LV 13 – meeting of the Zang organs, SP Mu CV 12 – meeting of the Fu organs,, GB 34 – meeting of the sinews/tendons, GB 39 – meeting of the marrow, UB 17 – meeting of the Blood, UB 11 – meeting of the bones, LU 9 – meeting of the Blood vessels, ST Mu CV 17 – meeting of the Qi, If there are febrile diseases, treat these 8 points accordingly.

– hello thank you for joining me today to go through our talk today on medical classics doctrine again this is one of a lecture of the entire course on the overview of TCM classics and doctrines today we’re going to look at a medical classic doctrine or we call it Yi Jing Xue Pai – Yi Jing Xue Pai the doctrine really has two definitions the very first one is the narrower definition it’s the exclusive study elaboration and understanding of the classical test of Huang Di Nei Jing or commonly known as the yellow Emperor’s Canon of Medicine

And if we look at the historical documentation at that time there’s a very famous historical book is called Han Shu or what we call a book of Han or book of Han Dynasty which is a book of history that documents activities of half of the dynasty we have the west west han dynasty and then we have the east han dynasty so this book documents the west han dynasty fine to south 206 BC to about 23 AD he stated and this is a very good historical documentation book because it was quite accurate any really document it’s probably the only book around that time that document Han Dynasty and also pre han dynasty activities so it really helped us to really understand the lives of the Chinese people around that time

He stated that there was seven medical classics in existence at that time and these are Huang Di Nei Jing is one of them the yellow Emperor’s internal classic then the yellow Emperor’s external classic we call upon Huang Di Wai Jing and Bian Que Nei Jing that’s the doctrine of Bian Que’s internal classics and Bian Que Wai Jing Bian Que’s external classics and then we have Bia Shi Nei Jing which is doctor Bai’s internal classics and external classics as well as dr. Bai’s what we call Bai Shi Pang Pian which is a doctor Bai’s supplement you can see this is a seven very well-known text books in TCM

Unfortunately through famines war and of course at that time all these books are not on paper they all basically passed down carved on bamboo sheath or animal bones so therefore losing them was a very easy thing to do so the only thing that really passed down was Huang Di Nei Jing so in a narrow definition of this doctrine is everything the study of Huang Di Nei Jing is the medical classics of doctrine now there is a broader doctrine definition is the study of publications theories principles that elaborate and elucidate and clarify or base upon Huang Di Nei Jing around the Warring State Period around the Qin Dynasty around the Han Dynasty three kingdoms and Chin and Jin dynasty so there’s a quite a few classics around that time that was not lost but they are based on the yellow Emperor’s Canon and and they are becoming what we call the Bibles of different areas of TCM

So for example Nei Jing is written around approximately around the warring States era which is somewhere around 475 BC around that time and then the next classic that you will see is Zhang Han Za Bing Lun which and also Zhong Sang Jin which both of them are in about Han Dynasty they’re in dynasty and then the next is the Mai Jing which is the the post classic as well as judging which is the acupuncture classic was written somewhere just right before 420 AD so in this span of a thousand years quite a few classics really pave the foundations of TCM of traditional Chinese medicine and so these are what we call classics that elaborated upon the foundation of the Yellow Emperor classic so we consider them are also classics that you must study so in a more broader sense the studying the medical classic doctrine it’s also to study these classics as well so again there’s actually a lot of supporting publications there’s vast amount of it but most of them are lost.

The main ones that we see still with us today is for example Nan jing classics of difficulties Shang Han Za Bing Lun which is discussion of injury by cold and Zhong Zang Jing which is the classic of Zang Fu and Jia Yi Jing which is the classic of acupuncture and Mai Jing classic of pulse so a lot of all these books are considered to be part of this classics doctrine except that the Shang Han Lun is such a major book and it takes light under study so later on in our next doctrine we’re gonna study we’re gonna basically studying about Zhang Han doctrine what that is all about and how even to today it is so useful in our modern context in the treatment of diseases there are many many supporting actors too many supporting doctors and authors that has written regarding to Huang Di Nei Jing and its work for example people like dr. Wan Bing people like that the Wu Qin Mass as well as dunces home for example so these are some of the supporting has of this doctrine.

Now Huang Di Nei Jing by itself there are various translation into many different languages and today we are just looking at the English portion and if you look at a translation into an English name there is the yellow Emperor’s in their classic there’s the inner canon of Huang Di there is the yellow Emperor’s inner canon there’s Huang Di classic of internal medicine there’s yellow Emperor’s Canon of traditional Chinese medicine so there’s a lot of names that’s used now for this particular text classic so a lot of times through this lecture I’ll just called Nei Jing or Huang Di Nei Jing then you know that this is this particular book.

Now if we dissected the name Huang Di Nei Jing Haung means yellow Di means Emperor so Yellow Emperor is Huang Di. Nei means inner or internal and Jing means classic or Scripture and so a lot of time people just call it a yellow Emperor’s inner classic the reality is that the inner it’s a opposite contacts to outer or external so that time is just it’s not necessary a study of just the inner body that’s not what it means it just means it’s a primary text primary text of Huang Di’s work so you could say the Nei King is a primary text and then Wei Jing the secondary tax ok and […] is kind of like a supplement so that’s the way the Chinese should be translated in this situation so let’s move on and talk about one Huang Di Nei Jing again this was published around the warring states period the exact time we are not so sure by the warring state period it’s about 475 BC to about 221 BC in the reality is that if is written by this time your imports are really long long gone obviously is not written by him and if you look at a lot of Chinese literature a lot of publication it’s not just in medicine you know astronomy in you know different things literature a lot of people love to just put the yellow Emperor’s classic sub something and the reason they put that is because it sells I mean it’s got name brand recognition since that a Chinese people consider themselves as the offspring of the Yellow Emperor so anything that’s got yellow and emperor they want to read it so I think in some ways it’s just kind of share the importance of that text and interesting enough this yellow Emperor’s classic it’s a wonderful well written book it’s almost like a compilation of all the basic TCM theories and foundations are all in this book.

this book is divided into two sections. Su Wen or what we call the plain or simple questions and Ling Shu the divine pivot or spiritual pivot and so it’s about 81 chapter each 162 chapters total out of these two sections and this is really really the earliest comprehensive documentation of medical knowledge experience and history in a Chinese history so this is a very important text not just for medicine for practitioners but also for historians who are studying Chinese culture now if you look at the next slide I would have a map here to show you during that time of a Warring States and in the map you will see there’s many different color of different sections and you’ll see it is truly warring States because there are many different little countries in China around that time and they are all kind of fighting each other so this is a period of time of much chaos period of time of much competition and obviously also period of time of incredible flourishing of philosophy of political science as well as management of country warfare etc a lot of the important work that that creates the fundamental foundation of Chinese culture really began in this warring states era how ironic a lot of stuff is so much produce and created during wartime and when the in Nei Jing does have a very strong impact because later on all the different school of thoughts all the different doctrines all the classics all the books and publication that’s written really originates from the fundamentals of this book the yellow are emperors our internal classic therefore Nei Jing Huang Di Nei Jing is considered to be the Bible of TCM.

now Huang Di Nei Jing has also many other classics there are many other classes but they all originally and relates intimately to Huang Di Nei Jing for example the classics of difficulties which is an elaboration of a fundamentals it’s written in a Q&A forum which we’ll look at a little bit late. Shang Han Lun which talks about injury by call and it’s an elaboration of febrile diseases that’s caused by infection of cold pathogens describe enough Huang Di Nei Jin Kui Yao Luo for example it’s a first really strong formula book is our essential strategies for the golden cabinet it discusses treatments of internal medicine and miscellaneous disease of what we call non-infectious diseases and again it’s understanding its theoretical format and theoretical foundation comes directly from the Nei Jing Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Ling or what we call Jia Yi Ling again is a study of acupuncture is the first comprehensive acupuncture Bible elaborated again from the Nei Jing. the pulse classical the classic opposed is the study of diagnosis originated again from the theoretical foundation of Nei Jing so these are the classics very important in creating foundation in a different areas of TCM all started out fundis fundamental help and support from the Huang Di Nei Jing now if we look at some of the mythology and we look at the some of the history Huang Di or the Yellow Emperor is a wise leader this is around four to five thousand years ago now and he is considered to be the originator of the Chinese culture and well revered and receive and respected in the history of Chinese history and by its people and this is a time of what we call the shell bone era I mean all this stuff all the documentation are carved on the cave from the wall of the cave as well as the bones of the animal and it’s most likely that it’s not possible that this book is written by him in that time now this book is approximately one-hundred forty-four thousand three hundred eighty-nine words and it’s a very well written profound book and so to use Huang Di in its title it’s to really denote its incredible importance in which is important and also in some ways preventing burning of the book later on Emperor that you know in a qin dynasty for example qin dynasty wants to burn all the books but if you have the yellow Emperor’s classic or yellow Emperor’s name on it he doesn’t dare to burn the book because oh I see this is from yellow Emperor’s writing so therefore he’s not going to touch it so in some ways trying to preserve the book later on for people to be able to read during the time environment of weight of one Huang Di Nei Jing was written they are at least twenty different books not have Huang Di in its title at that time but mostly are lost now during the warring States why this is important time because this is when sufficient medical experience and Knowledge start to congeal they’re starting to collected the other there are social changes there is actually scientific changes war and even the beginning of anatomy and there’s also this is a time slowly the decline witchcraft so as we say medicine is becoming more systemized during this period of time and the reason why we study Huang Di Nei Jing is that it provides the theoretical foundation of TCM for any students of TCM you really want to go to the source and study the source because it’s also besides giving a theoretical foundation it provides the proper methodology and frame of work of TCM development and thought process and there are really three main contents in this book first is the theories of yin and yang and five elements and it relates to the body and the world. second is the holistic perspective on health and disease Huang Di Nei Jing is really an incredible book about holism it’s about how things relate to each other how different parts of the universe how different parts of our inner body relates to each other you know to relate it to each other but also how our body relates to the cosmos relates to the universe how our body is connected to the world that we live in and this holistic perspective it is written throughout the entire book you turn on every corner it’s all about wholeness holistic perspective and then analyse the differentiation a diagnosis of different diseases as well of its treatment methodology and therapies and if we break it down into more detailed content we are looking at Yang Shen so we’ll be seeing some situation where they are talking about how you can have a long life without diseases talk about how prevention of diseases are very very important more important just treating the disease itself so even talking about how a superior physician is the person who treat what has not diseased yet the average physician is the one who treats what’s diseased in an inferior physician forget it we won’t even talk about that okay so it also talked about Zang Fu theory and the channel theories diagnostic disease discussion that goes into etiology pathology disease progression in the formation of syndromes table therapies such as acupuncture moxibustion, tui na and cupping etc he also talked about climatology how the climate the weather is of where you live can really affect humans health. Of course the yin-yang theories that permeate through all the different aspects of Chinese culture the five elements that permeates through any kind of study of science in Chinese culture and in disease discussion it talked about nineteen different etiologies he talked about Qi and blood etiopathology, it talks about zang fu pathology we also talk about a six Qi pathology we talk about the principle that ying-yang, Bao Li, Han Liu, Qi Xue yin and yang external internal cold and heat deficiency and excess deficiency it also established this of course is established later on the eight principles also the 8 principle syndrome differentiation establish the six channel differentiation it provides the foundation to be established of Wei Qi injury four stages of differentiation it […] as well as Qi and blood differentiation and Zang Fu differentiation they also discussed specific topics on fever malaria cough pain atrophy spasm swelling and other diseases so it’s a pretty robust medical textbook that written quite well and that has a lot of information now there are some main characteristics of Nei Jing I like to share with you for example this book opposes witchcraft it does not believe in witchcraft that gives fake therapies and trying get someone better without any kind of medicinal intervention. number two it has a very strong holistic perspective and it is believed that the human is a holistic organism that’s connected to the universe we also talked about the constant movement and change of the universe it’s no different than in our body our body doesn’t matter if we’re sitting still standing still or sleeping our body is still in constant movement and change regardless of time and you also talked about the difference between pathogens and anti pathogenic forces and how that conflict creates a balance in the universe and now at least when you’re sick that’s when you’re yin and yang is out of balance therefore this book talks a lot about what is the meaning of yin and yang balance so if we can break it down a little bit more Huang Di Nei Jing the very first section is suing the plain questions or what we call the simple questions eighty-one chapters and these any ones you have to focus on the fundamentals of Zang Fu diagnosis etiopathology treatment principle and the secondary focus is on Jing Luo on channel and collateral theories point studies and needling methods and techniques now if you go to Ling Shu it is sometimes called the divine pivot spiritual pivot or divine core 81 chapters focuses are mostly channel theories meridians point study and needling treatment so you can see that acupuncture is really a very big area big topic even in the ancient times already you know it occupies literally more than 50% of the Huang Di Nei Jing now later on as time move forward there are three main contributions to the Nei Jing in it basically three distinct ways the very first since Huang Di Nei Jing was written in a very ancient time in a language are quite different than later on time therefore we need to be somewhat translated or compiled and sometimes the words are missing sometimes the word need to be additive because in the old days of bamboo sheath and they had to eventually go into a printing press in a Song Dynasty so there are three ways that Nei Jing has really developed one is a direct compilation of Nei Jing second is direct translation in the elucidation is some people who would actually take the Nei Jing and talk about and write about what they believe what Nei Jing is trying to tell you and elaborates about some of the theories of Huang Di Nei Jing and then the third is actually the expansion on special topics you would take a topic and expand upon that to a great way so you can see Huang Di Nei Jing really pave the foundation for later development of all the different doctrines thoughts even events theories and treatment and principles and therapies of oh the TCM made on to follow so let’s look at the direct compilation again this is the preservation of original language in the book and there’s a these four authors that spend their lifetime to really make that happen and doctor Wang Bing is one of the main ones. dr. Wu Kun as well as dr. Ma Shi and Zhang Zhi Cong these are the four people I talked about earlier and the direct translation and elucidation in the second way you have also several other very very famous physician in their own right in really expanding and translating it elucidating and help us to have a better understanding of Huang Di Nei Jing these are Yang Shan Shan he is the the complete follower of Nei Jing. He believed Nei Jing is the undisputed the Bible of this. Zhang Jei Bing also as well later on Zhang Jei Bing in the Ming dynasty time and he is really one of the major major pillars of the Ming Men doctrine then he talked about how Huang Di Nei Jing was super important and a lot of his writing is basic the direct elaboration of the Huang Di Nei Jing. and these are two very very complete followers of Huang Di Nei Jing. then there are people that criticize or shall we say look at the Huang Di Nei Jing and and say hey you know there actually some mistakes in there or maybe that this is incomplete let’s see if I can complete and make it better and there are four critical editors or we call it. dr. Hua Sou doctor Li Zhong Zi doctor Wang Ang and dr. Shen You Peng. for example those four major authors that really take Nei Jing and tease apart a little bit and trying to instill and infuse their own understanding criticizing some of the passages of the found in Nei Jing then the third contribution is expansion by special topics these are some of them are actually classics in their own right for example Qin Yeu Ren and which is commonly known as […] it’s known to be the author of the classics of difficulties that’s an amazing text that further elaborates upon the foundations of TCM theories and in Zhang Zhong Jing I think by now you know that he is the father of TCM and basically he is the writer and contributor to Shang Han Za Bing Lun Hua Tuo is another doctor that wrote Zhang Zhong Jing and Huang Fu Mi basically he has written the acupuncture bible. Liu Wan Su basically he is the initiator of the fire heat pathology doctrine which we will talk about in another course in another class and then at least dr. Luo Long Ji, doctor Liu Yu De, dr. Zhu and dr. Chen Wu Jiu. these are sound the doctors have written about the formulations that expanded upon Nei Jing’s Foundation so these are special topics that expands a pound the theories and of Nei Jing. so let’s go to the Nan Jing for a moment. Nan Jing is written by Bian Qu we call that […] and Shang Han Lung as we say earlier was developed by Zhang Zhong Jing. He elaborated on the cold pathology and treatment and Huang Fu Mi focused on the treatment of acupuncture and moxibustion in his seminal book of Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing. and not the least, Zhong Zang Jing it’s basically called the classic of central viscera basically it’s a book on Zang Fu, it is an elaboration of Zang Fu basically and not the least Liu Wan Su has written this wonderful book Su Wen Xuan Ji Yuan Bing Shi it’s the name of the book it’s called the standards of the mysterious inner workings of the origins of disease. he elaborated upon strongly on etiology etiopathology especially in the area of heat pathology and he studied, he’s an avid avid expander of the Huang Di Nei Jing. so let’s take a look at one topic of Huang Di Nei Jing. we look through some the topics and the critical theoretical foundation Huang Di Nei Jing has provided us with. first Huang Di say about yin and yang that the law of yin and yang is the natural order of the universe the foundation of all things mother of all changes the root of life and death in healing one must grasp the root of the disharmony which is always subject to the laws of yin and yang. so right off the bat in this situation what is already telling you is giving you a definition of what disease is all about. disease is an imbalance of yin and yang. when yin and yang are no longer in balance that’s when we get sick. okay and no difference in the world in the universe disease of the universe imbalance of the climate imbalance of the weather situation that creates in the universe it’s also an imbalance of yin and yang. that’s the law of yin and yang. then we go to the five elements and he says in chapter 23 of the Nei Jing Su Wen says that each of the five zang organs also has its aversions. each organ it’s like a little person they have their own likes and dislikes. the heart for example doesn’t like heat. the lung for example doesn’t like dryness. the liver for example hates wind and movements of air. the spleen for example hates dampness. the kidneys hate dryness for example. that’s in chapter 23 talk about the five element of principle basically if you look at this you start to recognize is that the elements are telling you that they are distinct characteristics of all the different matters of life. and all the different matters of life are constituted and consist of some variations of these five elements. okay so studying the five elements can help us to appreciate the quality the progression of the kind of disease that we are dealing with so that we can give proper proper formulas, proper treatments that can actually bring that elemental balance back. bring that yin and yang balance back in the five elements. so in Zang Fu in one of the chapters it talks about how Qi Bo answered in in general the reproductive physiology of a woman in such that seven years of age her kidney energy becomes full her permanent teeth come in and her hair grows long. now we’re talking about Reproductive Endocrinology now now you talk about the span of time that we are reproductive and also the aging process and this is a lot of different areas in the Su Wen are written in kind of like a question and answer kind of thing or what we should say it’s a dialogue between the Yellow Emperor and his court physician for example Qi Bo and continue onward in this Reproductive Endocrinology of women at fourteenth of age the tian kui, or the fertility essence matures the ren, which is the conception channel, and the chong vital channels responsible for conception open up. menstruation begins and conception is possible. now this is a 14 years old and this is written and this is a good solid you know three four, three four thousand years ago as you can see this is your menarche, when a woman starts her period now you can see that that hasn’t changed too much through time today the average age is 13 point something in the old days 14 years old as you can see so it’s pretty accurate. continue onward age 21 the kidney energy is strong and healthy the wisdom teeth appear and the body’s vital and flourishing so we talked about how the growth development of 21 years old and when you get to age of 20 the bones and the tendons are well developed by this point and the hair and the secondary sex characteristics are complete this is the height of the female development so frequently this is a time where we say that basically you are around the peak of your reproductive function. so if you look at today on the average of your healthy woman your peak reproductive function is before 30 years old somewhere between 25 years old somewhere the peaks around 25 years old in TCM in yellows Emperor talked about 28 years of you years behind. now it is 35 years old the yangmin channels that govern the major facial muscles begin to deplete is certainly fine now the muscles begin to atrophy you start to having facial wrinkles appear and the hair begin to thin so at 35 year old it’s already showing something aging qualities even though they might be minute but it’s already showing during that time. and at age 42 all the three yang channels are exhausted the entire face start to get wrinkled and the hair begins to turn gray and so that is that is a time where the yangmin channel truly truly becomes weakened but its own not just the yangmin channel all the three yang channels start to deplete now when you get 7 times 7 which give us 49 years old this is a time of menopause and this is a time where Ren and chong channels are completely empty and the tien kui has dried up the fertility essence has dried up an menstruation ceases, ovulation ceases and no longer able to conceive so 49 year old menopause age if you look at today in the United States we’re talking about somewhere between 50 to 51 so you can see that hasn’t changed too much and that still stay true today if you look at males we are coming by the eight times a cycle like female is the seven-year cycles in a male is more of an eight year cycle so a male at eight years old of age our kidney energy for the permanent teeth appear and the hair becomes long just like a girl at age 7 at 16 years of age the kidney energy becomes ample the Tian kui is mature the jing is ripe so procreation is possible this is where man can actually start to get a woman pregnant they can ejaculate they’re strong interactions and they’re able to procreate and at age 24 – 3 times 8 for example the kidney chi is abundant the bones are strong tendons grow strong and the wisdom teeth comes in this is when a man it’s and it’s kind of like and almost coming up not at a prime years but coming closer to the prime time and age thirty second four times eight – 32 years old the body is at a peak of strength and the function of the male its height now in age let me see what we got here is four eighths or 32 and they’re 5 5 a is 40 years old and a 40 years old a kidney chi begins to wane and the teeth becomes loose and a hair starts to fall that’s the aging aspects of male and in age 40 a the yang energy of the hair begins to deplete the the face droops becomes shallow sallow the hair quays and the teeth deteriorates and at the 56 years old the liver energy weakens and causing the tendons to stiff so a 56 year old this is a time we may become much much stiffer with their spine this is 7 times a and now now at least a pi times a give us a complete cycle in the men’s Reproductive Endocrinology it’s a 64 years old the Tang Kuei dries up and a jing it’s drained resulting in Kidney exhaustion fatigue and weakness this is also a time where a lot of men start to lose their interactions so they no longer can procreate not only not their procreation this weak the sperm is weak so at a time if they’re able to procreate a lot of times the essence the DNA from the your sperm is not as strong so you can actually create a lot of abnormal genetic issues during this time so if you look at chapter one of the universal truth of Huang Di Nei Jing says that when the energy of all the organs are full the excess of the excessive energy stores in kidney excreted for the purpose of conception but now the organs have a aged and their energy had become depleted therefore the bones in attendence have become frail and stiff and movements are hampered the kidney reservoir becomes empty making the end of the power of conception this is chapter one of Huang Di Nei Jing they talk about the importance of reproduction and the importance of a preservation of species so it does have a long view as you can see how that’s very important not just in a sense of Health but in a sense of producing a healthy baby healthy offspring and in etiopathology one of a chapter Huang Di says that in nature there are eight types of wind and within the body’s channel and collaterals there are five types of wind what do they mean well it talks about how their different type of wind that’s outside in the environment when as you know is air movement air going from low pressure to a high pressure area because the air rises in a high pressure and in the air the air at remove into a different pressure differential so this is no different in our body so Qi Bo answers Huang Di and says well the eight types of wind that occur in nature are normal and pathogenic winds which can cause diseases these can affect the body channels and collaterals producing five types of different internal wind that damage its correcting our corresponding organs and these internal winds are liver wind – wind of the heart – wind of the lung – wind of the kidney and wind of spleen and they are caused by abnormal changes in the four seasons so Huang Di Nei Jing spent a lot of time locating the importance of understanding of seasonal changes if you can understand the seasonal changes and protect yourself or anticipate the changes with whatever you can do in a sense of clothing nutrition storage of food if you’re able to do that well you’ll live a long period of time obviously nowaday we can literally create season we can have an air conditioning blasting in our home and call it the winner we can have heaters to go on and that can actually warm us in the wintertime so you can see we can actually create micro climates but nevertheless the universal climates still affects us so it’s still very important to appreciate and understand these four season and differences between them and frequently Huang Di says that whenever you get sick is actually the time of change so between seasonal changes these are the time where people do get sick for example that spring time overacts on the summer they summer overacts on winter winter over acts on summer summer over acts on autumn and autumn over acts on spring this is chapter four the truth from the Golden Chamber basically what it’s saying is seasons can also create problems for the next our season itself can also create imbalances among themselves also as well because sometimes as you know in the winter we are supposed to be cold but what happened when it’s hot in a summer we’re supposed to be hot what happened when is cold spring we’re supposed to be just be warm what happened when it’s too hot or too cold fall time is supposed to be a time of harvest what happened it was too hot or too cold all these can affect the changes of the environment outside of us that directly impact the environment inside of us so that’s contained to look at chapter one the universal truth he says that in ancient times the Yellow Emperor Huangdi was known to have been a child prodigy as he grew he showed himself to be sincere wise honors and compassionate rather back sincere wise honest and compassionate are really true characteristics that you want to admire and respect and develop as a doctor that’s what Yellow Emperor is trying to tell you right here he became very nerd and developed keen powers for observing nature right back right here again to be a good healer you have to have a good understanding of the nature and environment and the climate that you live in his people recognized him as a natural leader and choose him as their Emperor well if you’re smart if you understand some of these issues around the climate around diseases you naturally become a leader of your patients patient come to you for your guidance so that’s what Wanda says here is wonderful and if you look at how we define nature is the phenomenon of physical world collectively so this includes the plants that we see the animals are around underneath and an the landscape which is a combination of both and others and other features and product of our earth as opposed to hue or human creations so nature a lot of time when we leave it alone it can create its own balance but when men and human beings interfere sometimes we can create a nest in our nature so it’s important to sometimes allow the nature to be instead of trying to create may may create nature move on to chapter one again to the second and next passage during his reign Huang Di discourse on medicine health lifestyle nutrition and dallas cosmology with his ministers Qi Bo Lei Gong and others their first discussion began with a Huang Di inquiry you know I’ve heard that in the days of old everybody lived 100 years old without showing the usual sign of aging but in our time however all our people age prematurely living only 50 years old is this due to a change in the environment or is it because people have lost the correct way of life as this Yellow Emperor inquires to his Court ministers now if you look at symptoms of Aging there’s several of them you can always have a list for example increase susceptibility to infection great risk greater risk of heat stroke and hypothermia slight decrease in height earth the bones in our spine become thinner and started losing some high bone breaks more easily joint changes to posture slow and limited movements decreasing overall energy constipation urinary incontinence a slide showing of thoughts memory changes thinking for example and reduce reflexes and coordination difficulty with balance decrease in visual acuity diminished peripheral visions some degrees of hair loss wrinkles grey hair weight loss after age 55 in men and after age 60 in woman this can be due to a loss of muscle so in some way these are all the symptoms of aging that we know today and also in the ancient times so Qi Bo replies to Haung Di well in the past people practice the Tao the way of life they understood the principles of balance of yin and yang as represented by the transformation of the energy of the universe those they formulate practices such as dao-in exercises now combining stretching massaging and breathing to promote energy flow and meditation to help maintain and harmonize themselves with the universe they ate a balanced diet add a balanced regular time they rise and retire and irregular hours they avoid over stressing their body and mind and refrain from overindulgence of all kinds they maintain the well-being of their body in my those it is not surprising that they lived over 100 years old so this is chapter one right off the bat talk about already prevention of aging this is the true Taoist medicine because it’s really focusing on prevention right now is not just focusing a treatment of what’s disease but it’s trying to teach us to be the exception of physician so continue our I’m reading chapter one so these days people have changed their way of life they drink wine as though it’s water they indulge excessively in destructive activity draining their essence that is stored in your kidneys and despite and depletes their Chi they do not know the secrets of conserving their energy and vitality they seek emotional excitement excitation and momentary pleasures people disregard the natural rhythm in older of the universe they fail to regulate their lifestyle and diet and sleep improperly when this happens so is not surprising that they look old 50 and died soon after so the accomplished ones of the ancient times advised people to guard themselves against zei feng – zei feng means thievery when the wind uh steals disease-causing factor so on the mental level one should remain calm and avoid excessive desires and fantasies recognizing that these excessive desires and fantasies can deplete your essence and recognizing and maintaining a natural purity and clarity of the mind when internal energy are able to circulate smoothly and freely any energy of the mind is not scattered but is focused and concentrated illness and disease can be avoided continue onward to next passage says that previous people led a calm and honest existence detach from undue desire and ambition they lived with an untamed conscience because they live simply these individual were active and never deplete themselves and they know contentment as reflected in their diet of basic but nourishing foods and at attires you know clothing that was appropriate for the season and but not overly luxurious since they were happy with their position in life they did not feel jealousy or greed they had compassion for others and were helpful and honest free from destructive habits and activities they remain unshakeable and unswayed by temptations and they were able to stay centered even when adversity arise they treat others justly regardless of their level of intelligence or social position in this passage we really talk about how to live correctly it already it hasn’t been we haven’t even gotten to the medicine part at all. we already talked about lifestyle this tells us that Huang Di Nei Jing puts tremendous amount emphasis on prevention of – a prevention of diseases – and lifestyle dietary nutritions are so important critical these are your bedrock this is your foundation so whenever we treat a disease or somebody’s sick we do any want to look in a lifestyle continue onward to the next passage Huang Di asks when one grows all one cannot bear children is this due to heredity or to a loss of one’s full creative energy Qi Bo answered, in general the reproductive physiology of that seven-year cycle in an eight year cycle which we talked about earlier it’s in this area so it’s important to look at that chapter 1 because chapter 1 really set the tone in the directions how we can be an exceptional physician so let’s look at other classics and today I’m just gonna spend a little bit time on Nan Jing there are many others but Nan Jing is something dear to my heart Nan Jing is called the classic of difficulties is a yellow Emperor’s 81 or sometimes it’s called a yellow Emperor’s a 81 classics of difficulties or sometimes we call 81 difficulties it’s published during the warring state era the author is Bian Que and it was originally named again Huang Di Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing or yellow Emperor’s 81 classic of difficulty it it’s written in the form in a Q&A question and answer you provides answer to about 81 medical question art don’t ask me why they always keep on choosing 81 81 chapters in the yellow Emperor’s classic. I got 81 questions so say everybody loved this number 81 therefore we call this the 81 difficulties that we had to solve so questions 1 to 22 relate to pulse diagnosis 23 to 29 relates to channel and collaterals questions 30 to 47 relate to Zang Fu question 48 or 61 relates the discussion of disease questions 62 to 68 relates to acupuncture points questions 69 to 81 relates to acupuncture therapy the entire book is really on describing the fundamentals of TCM. here now there are some new concept there are also some contribution to concept that’s already been discussed in a yellow Emperor’s classic by elaborate a little bit more for example to contribute to some return such as Mingmen Sanjiao the seven gates of the digestive system we call it Qi Chong Men the eight influential points in acupuncture that connect the Zang Fu tendon marrow blood bone pulse and chi. Five types of sang-hun injury by cold Zhong Feng, Shang Han, Shi Wen, we talk about Ra Bing and Wen Bing and it also has discussion of stagnancy in Zang organ as well as dysentery and this book has many versions later on and many elaborations let’s look at some of the examples the first one question and answer so 31 San Jiao: so the question is San Jiao what is it what is this foundation how is it created where does it begin where does it end what is the function and how can I have better understanding of San Jiao and the answer is San Jiao is the path for food and water metabolism it is the beginning and the end of Chi. upper jiao is the heart area above the stomach it dominates the reception and treatment and the treatment treatment should be around cv 17 and that’s the point the middle jiao is in the middle of the stomach dominates all the digestion and fermentation of the food and water and the treatment should be in stomach 25 lower jiao is above the urethra it dominates all the separation of clear front turbid and it’s about excretion and the treatment of it can be about 1 cun below the belly button it’s housed in stomach 30-point Qi Jie points. question number 36 question answer number 36 Ming Men: question all Zang organs have one why does kidney have two – is kidney special? well it’s not special in that sense kidney has two because one of them is actually not the kidney Zang organ. the left one is kidney Zang organ. but the right one is Ming Men Ming Men means house spirit in essence and provides the foundation of source Chi in men is the place to store sexual essence or semen or sperm in women it is a place to hold pregnancy that is why kidney Zang organ it’s only one so they’re pretty clear at that time even though the anatomy might be a little bit off but it’s discussing the importance of reproduction the importance of hormone importance of glands. question and answer number 45 pathway Ba Hui – Bai Hui is 8 influential points the question is Nei Jing made a mention of Ba Hui 8 influential points what are they well liver 13 for example is the meeting of the zang organ and spleen Mu. CV 12 is the meeting of the Fu organs. gall bladder 34 is the meeting of tendons and sinews. gallbladder 39 is the meeting of marrow. and bladder 17 is a meeting of blood the urinary bladder 11 is the meeting of bone and lung 9 is the meeting of the blood vessels and stomach mu point CV 17 is a meeting of Chi if if there are febrile diseases treat these points accordingly so as you can see this is a beginning and there is a little bit of mistaken discussion why certain points not really correct but data on it pave the foundation of these a influential points so this is the the I just want to share with you some of the example of Huang Di Nei Jing as your major classic and a little bit on Nan Jing and I hope you enjoy the talk today and this is a conclusion on the Huang Di Nei Jing in the medical classics doctrine thank you for listening

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